Customizing DB-Connected TableGateways with Features

Consider the case of PostgreSQL, which can use sequences when autogenerating identifiers for the primary key on tables. In order to use this feature with Zend\Db\TableGateway, you must provide your TableGateway instance with the "Sequence" feature (\Zend\Db\TableGateway\Feature\SequenceFeature). However, the functionality responsible for creating the TableGateway instance does not provide a way to specify features!

Delegator Factories

Delegator Factories are a way to "decorate" an instance returned by the Zend Framework ServiceManager in order to provide pre-conditions or alter the instance normally returned. The following solution defines a delegator factory that can be selectively associated with DB-Connected TableGateway instances in order to inject features as specified in configuration.

For purposes of this example, we'll assume an API module named SomeApi, currently at version 1. We'll also assume we've created a DB-Connected REST service by the name of "Tasks".

First, let's look at the factory. We'll create it in src/SomeApi/TableGatewayFeaturesDelegatorFactory.php so that the application can find it without any additional configuration.

namespace SomeApi;

use Zend\Db\TableGateway\Feature;
use Zend\ServiceManager\DelegatorFactoryInterface;
use Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorInterface;
class TableGatewayFeaturesDelegatorFactory implements DelegatorFactoryInterface
    public function createDelegatorWithName(
        ServiceLocatorInterface $services,
    ) {
        $table  = $callback();
        $config = $services->get('Config');
        // TableGateway service for DB-Connected ends in "\\Table"; strip that
        $resourceName = substr($requestedName, 0, strlen($requestedName) - 6);
        $config = $config['zf-apigility']['db-connected'][$resourceName]; 
        if (! isset($config['features'])) {
            return $table;
        $featureSet = $table->getFeatureSet();
        foreach ($config['features'] as $featureName => $options) {
            // logic to create feature...
            switch ($featureName) {
                case 'sequence':
                    $feature = new Feature\SequenceFeature(
                    // Unknown feature; do nothing
            // and then add it to the feature-set
        return $table;

Supporting Additional Features

The above example can be extended to support more features by adding additional case statements. Each statement should define $feature as an instance of Zend\Db\TableGateway\Feature\FeatureInterface.

Next, we'll update the SomeApi module's config/module.config.php to inform the ServiceManager that we want to use the above DelegatorFactory when retrieving the TableGateway associated with our Tasks service.

return [
    /* ... */
    'service_manager' => [
        /* ... */
        'delegators' => [
            'SomeApi\V1\Rest\Tasks\TasksResource\Table' => [
    /* ... */

The above tells the ServiceManager to apply our delegator when creating the initial instance for the service SomeApi\V1\Rest\Tasks\TasksResource\Table, our TableGateway.

However, this won't do anything special at this point -- because we haven't yet defined any features for the TableGateway!

In config/module.config.php, let's do some more editing, this time in the zf-apigility section.

return [
    /* ... */
    'zf-apigility' => [
        'db-connected' => [
            /* ... */
            'SomeApi\V1\Rest\Tasks\TasksResource' => [
                /* ... */
                'features' => [
                    'sequence' => [
                        'primaryKeyField' => '<name of primary key column>',
                        'sequenceName' => '<name of sequence>',
            /* ... */
    /* ... */

At this point, our TableGateway for our Tasks service will now use a sequence!


While the above example shows only adding features to a specific TableGateway, the delegator factory we've defined can be used to add features to any TableGateway service associated with Apigility's DB-Connected resources that we can retrieve via the ServiceManager. All you need to do is associate your named TableGateway service with the delegator factory via the delegators service manager configuration.